# Diagramming Solutions for PrepTest 54

### Game 1

Step  1

Per the given scenario, we can write out the six elements to be placed, and indicate the subset (men, m, or women, w) that they belong to - Fm, Gm, Hm, Jw, Kw, Lw. We can also create a diagram that groups elements based on whether they are on or off stage.

Step 2

Per the first and second rules, we can create two frames, one in which Jw is on and Lw is off, and another in which Lw is on and Jw is off.

Step 3

Per the third rule, we can infer, in the first frame, that Fm must be in. The third rule does not impact the second frame.

Step 4

Since both frames have women on stage, per the fourth rule, Gm must always be on stage.

Step 5

We can notate that Hm and Kw are not directly restricted by any of the given rules.

### Game 2

Step 1

Per the given scenario, we can write out the six elements to be placed - H, I, N, Q, R, and S, and per the scenario and the first rule, we can lay out the positions to be filled -- a minimum of one and at most two for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, representing the number of stars received.

Step 2

Per the fourth rule, we can create two frames, one in which Q receives 3 stars, and another in which Q receives 4 stars. When Q receives 3 stars, we can infer and notate that only one album will receive 4 stars.

Step 3

Per the second rule, we can notate that H must immediately follow N..

Step 4

Per the third rule, we can notate that either H or R will be paired with I.

Step 5

We can notate that S is not directly restricted by any of the given rules.

### Game 3

Step 1

Per the given scenario, we can write out the six elements to be placed - L, M, O, R, S, and V, and we can lay out the six positions to be filled, in vertical order.

Step 2

Per the first rule, we can notate that R and S cannot be next to one another.

Step 3

Per the second rule, we can notate that M must be immediately above L.

Step 4

Per the third rule, we can notate that S is above O and O above the M,L duo. We can connect this to our notation for the second rule.

Step 5

We can notate that V is not directly restricted by any of the given rules.

### Game 4

Step 1

Per the given scenario, we can write out the six elements to be placed - H, J, K, R, S, and T - and the six positions to be filled, in order.

Step 2

Per the third and fourth rules, we can split our diagram into two frames, one in which J is fourth (frame 1) and one in which J is not (frame 2).

Step 3

In frame 1, per the third rule, we can notate that J must be before both S and T.

Step 4

In frame 1, per the second rule, we can notate that H is before both J and K. We can connect this to our notation for the third rule.

Step 5

In frame 1, per the fifth rule, in conjunction with the third rule,  we can infer that S must be fifth and T sixth.

Step 6

In the first frame, that leaves H - K, and R to fill the first three spots, in a variety of possible orders.

Step 7

In frame 2, per the fourth rule, we can notate that J must be after both S and T.

Step 8

In frame 2, per the second rule, we can notate that H is before both J and K. We can connect this to our notation for the third rule.

Step 9

In frame 2, per the fifth rule, we can notate that R or S is fifth.

Step 10

In frame 2, we can now infer that J can only go sixth.

Step 11

In frame 2, that leaves either R or S, T, and H - K, in a variety of possible orders, to fill the first four spots.

Step 12

Per the first rule, we can notate, for both frames, that the second or third bid is accepted and either K or R.

These pages offer diagramming suggestions for every game that has appeared in every Logic Games section from PrepTests 52 through 81. Please keep in mind that there are many different ways to effectively diagram Logic Games, and it’s often a very subjective decision as to which inferences to notate, when to split diagrams, and so on.

One significant advantage of the Trainer diagramming methods is that they provide a universal diagramming system that you can use for any game that appears in the section. This is in contrast to most other LSAT learning systems, which separate games out into distinct categories, each with its own, and often conflicting, notational system.

### General Suggestions on How to Diagram Logic Games

1. Always read through the scenario and rules completely, and pause to mentally consider and visualize  the game, before setting pencil to paper.

2. Think of all games in terms of elements to place and positions to place them into. Nearly every game places these positions into an order, into groups, or both.

3. Whenever you find it useful, feel free to deal with the rules in an order that makes it most convenient for you to draw an effective diagram.

4. Always be on the lookout for inferences - things that you can figure out by bringing information, such as rules, together. The purpose of your diagram is to, in fact, help you uncover inferences correctly, and these inferences (more so than the rules as they are given) are what determine right and wrong for the vast majority of problems.

5. Look for opportunities to split up your game board into multiple frames - which are a set of diagrams that collectively represent all of the possibilities of a game. Most commonly, we can create frames around a very limited set of options for how to fill a certain position or positions (“either F or K must be third,” for example) or where to place an element or elements (“K must go first or last,” for example).

6. Whenever you have trouble notating a rule clearly, don’t be afraid to write it out or provide as much detail as you feel necessary. Better to be safe than overly clever.

7. When you are done with your diagram, evaluate your notations carefully and check them back against the scenario and rules as written. Make sure that you understand what your notations mean, and that they represent the given information correctly.

### Table of Commonly Used Notations

Here is a downloadable and printable infographic that includes the symbols and notations that we will most commonly utilize to set up games. Please click to open full screen.

The LSAT Trainer is available on Amazon and Apple iBooks, and in your local bookstore.